Recent Updates to The Medical Biochemistry Page



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May 24, 2017

Updated the Growth Factors and Cytokines page to expand the discussion of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) of proteins and their receptors identified as the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF).


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 3, 2017

Updated the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page to expand the discussion of the processes of ketone synthesis and utilization and the non-metabolic functions of the ketones.


May 2, 2017

Added a new section to the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids page describing the activities of several recently characterized bioactive metabolites of the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA.


May 1, 2017

Added a new section to the Bioactive Lipids page describing the structure and functions of the newly characterized class of bioactive lipids called fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids, FAHFA.


April 28, 2017

Updated the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids page and the Lipid-Derived Inflammatory Modulators page to include more details on the biological activities of the bioactive lipid derivatives of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).


April 25, 2017

Added a brand new page to the site describing the genetics and clinical manifestations of the amino acid transport defect associated disease known as Lysinuric protein intolerance.


April 12, 2017

Added a brand new page to the site describing the genetics and clinical manifestations of the amino acid transport defect associated disease known as Cystinuria.


April 11, 2017

Added a brand new page to the site describing the genetics and clinical manifestations of the amino acid transport defect associated disease known as Hartnup Disorder.


March 22, 2017

Added a brand new page to the site describing the genetics and clinical manifestations of the Methylmalonic Acidemias/Acidurias.


March 21, 2017

Added a new section to the Amino Acid Metabolism page discussing the major disorders of branched-chain amino acid metabolism.


March 21, 2017

Added a new section to the Amino Acid Derivatives page discussing the creatine deficiency syndromes.


March 21, 2017

Updated the Oxidative Phosphorylation page to provide more details pertaining to the composition and functions of the ATP synthase complex (often referred to as complex V).


March 8, 2017

Expanded the Elongation and Desaturation section of the Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Synthesis page to provide more details on the pathways by which cells elongate endogenous and dietary fatty acids.


March 7, 2017

Added a new Figure to the Protein, Organelle, and Cell Turnover page detailing the proteins and protein complexes involved in the initiation and activation of macroautophagy (autophagy).


March 1, 2017

Updated the Vitamins page to include greater details regarding the conversion of vitamin B3 (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), and folic acid to their biologically active forms in human tissues.


January 16, 2017

Updated the Muscle Biochemistry page to add a comparison of the physiological processes of skeletal versus cardiac muscle excitation and action potential propagation.


January 11, 2017

Completed the section covering the process of Autophagy in the Protein, Organelle, and Cell Turnover page.


January 7, 2017

Added a new section to the Protein Modifications and Targeting page detailing the role of molecular chaperones, such as the HSP family, in the processes of protein folding.


December 20, 2016

Completed the section covering Apoptosis in new page entitled Protein, Organelle, and Cell Turnover.


December 20, 2016

Performed a major overhaul of the Protein Modifications and Protein Targeting page to add a new section detailing the processes of exocytosis and endocytosis. Also removed the sections covering the dicussion ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins in protein turnover and placed these sections in a new page entitled Protein, Organelle, and Cell Turnover.


December 16, 2016

Performed an update of the Protein Modifications and Protein Targeting page to add a section detailing nuclear, mitochondrial, and peroxisomal protein targeting.


December 9, 2016

Performed a major overhaul of the Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans page to expand and correct information on the synthesis and modification of the various glycosaminoglycans (GAG).


November 26, 2016

Performed a major overhaul of the Signal Transduction page to expand and correct information on the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and also added new sections describing the ionotropic nucleotide receptors (P2X) and metabotropic nucleotide receptors (P2Y).


November 9, 2016

Added a new page to the site discussing the Cytochrome P450 family of metabolizing enzymes.


November 3, 2016

Updated and corrected the Figure of the urea cycle in the Nitrogen Metabolism and Urea Cycle page primarily to remove the ionic charges on the nitrogens of the urea molecule given that urea does not ionize.


September 23, 2016

Updated the Protein Modifications page to expand and enhance the discussion of protein ubiquitylation and added a subsection on protein neddylation which involves the ubiquitin-like modifier, NEDD8.


September 6, 2016

Updated the Control of Gene Expression page to include a discussion of the role of histone O-GlcNAcylation as an epigenetic modifier of gene expression.


September 6, 2016

Updated the Glycoproteins page to include a discussion of role of the O-GlcNAcylation of various protein components of the transcriptional machinery and how these modifications impact gene expression and epigenetic processes.


September 2, 2016

Updated the RNA Metabolism page to include a discussion of activities of the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs).


August 29, 2016

Updated the Muscle Biochemistry page to include a more detailed discussion of the regulated activities of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation. Included a new section describing and discussing the activities of myosin phosphatase (myosin light chain phosphatase).


August 25, 2016

Updated the Muscle Biochemistry page to include a detailed discussion of the role of calcium ions in striated muscle activation and relaxation including the calcium channels and calcium-binding proteins that regulate calcium effects.


August 15, 2016

Added a new section to the RNA Metabolism page describing the various modifications, such as methylations, that have been found in the nucleotides of mRNA molecules and discussing the functional and clinical significances of these modifications.


August 6, 2016

Added a new Figure to the DNA Metabolism page depicting the reactions involved in the creation of a methylated cytidine residue in a CpG dinucleotide and the reactions that are required to remove the methyl group.


July 19, 2016

Greatly expanded the section in the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and TCA Cycle page describing the role of mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and fumarate hydratase encoding genes in the development of numerous forms of cancer.


July 13, 2016

Added a section to the Protein Modifications page describing the role of protein lysine acetylation and deacetylation in the regulation of metabolic processes.


July 7, 2016

Added a Figure to the Control of Gene Expression page showing the enzymatic steps of protein lysine methylation and demethylation.


July 7, 2016

Added a new section covering the role of the hypoxia-induced (HIF-1) pathway in the altered glucose metabolism observed in cancer cells in the Glycolysis page.


July 5, 2016

Greatly expanded the section covering histone modifications and the role in regulation of gene expression in the Control of Gene Expression page.


July 3, 2016

Greatly expanded the section covering DNA methylation and chromatin structure is the DNA Metabolism page.


July 3, 2016

Added a section to the TCA Cycle page detailing the role of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) isoforms in certain forms of cancer.


June 21, 2016

Added a newly designed Figure to the Endocannabinoids page showing the pathways for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis.


June 21, 2016

Added a newly designed Figure to the Endocannabinoids page showing the pathways for anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) synthesis.


June 13, 2016

Added a newly designed Figure to the RNA Metabolism page showing the mechanisms of group 1 and group 2 self splicing intron removal.


June 12, 2016

Added a new Figure to the RNA Metabolism page showing the complex interaction of the numerous protein factors required for efficient and accuratre polyadenylation of mammalian mRNAs.


June 9, 2016

Updated the discussion of the processes of RNA splicing in the RNA Metabolism page.


June 6, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the reactions of protein prenylation in the Protein Modifications page.


May 25, 2016

Updated the discussion of IGF-1 and IGF-2 in the Growth Factors page.


May 13, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the homeostasis of iron metabolism within the liver in the Iron and Copper Homeostasis page.


May 12, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the synthesis of the male sex hormones in the Steroid Hormones page.


May 12, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the synthesis of the adrenal steroid hormones in the Steroid Hormones page.


May 10, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the absorption and storage of intestinal iron in the Iron and Copper Homeostasis page.


May 9, 2016

Updated the information of the synthesis of the polyamines in the Amino Acid Derivatives page.


May 9, 2016

Updated the Figure showing the synthesis of the polyamines in the Amino Acid Derivatives page.


May 6, 2016

Updated the discussion of the ribonucleotide reductase reaction process in the Nucleotide Metabolism page.


May 6, 2016

Updated the discussion of the glutathione, glutathine reductase, and glutathione peroxidase functions in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway page.


May 5, 2016

Updated and corrected the Figure showing the purine nucleotides salvage pathway in the Nucleotide Metabolism page.


May 4, 2016

Updated and corrected the Figure showing the catabolism of the purine nucleotides in the Nucleotide Metabolism page.


April 28, 2016

Updated and corrected the Figure showing the translation elongation cycle in the Protein Synthesis page.


April 28, 2016

Updated the Growth Factors page to add more details on the various factors that are included and removed the extremely brief descriptions of several interleukins since there are numerous far better pages on the internet that detail the functions of the interleukins.


February 15, 2016

Updated, expanded, and corrected the Fatty Acid and Triglyceride Synthesis page with respect to the information on the synthesis of triglycerides and also the plasmalogens. Also added a new Figfure showing the various pathways of triglyceride synthesis.


February 9, 2016

Updated and expanded the Amino Acid Derivatives page to increase the information regarding the synthesis, metabolism, and functions of nitric oxide (NO) and the nitric oxide synthases (NOS).


February 8, 2016

Updated the Amino Acid Derivatives page to increase and correct the information regarding the synthesis, metabolism, and functions of the polyamines.


February 2, 2016

Updated the Membranes and Membrane Transport page to include a Table describing all of the ATPase family member transporters.


January 26, 2016

Added a brand new page to the site entitled Opioids and Opioid Receptors which discusses the opioids, their effects exerted through specific receptors, and their role in the control of feeding behaviors.


January 21, 2016

Updated the Galactose Metabolism page to include more detailed information on the clinical and genetic aspects of classic (type 1) galactosemia.


January 18, 2016

Updated the Glycolysis page to include more detailed information on the expression of the various hexokinase isoforms, their regulation, and their patterns of expresion.


January 10, 2016

Updated the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page to include information on the neurotransmitter, histamine.


January 10, 2016

Updated the Oncogenes and Cancer page in order to include more up-to-date and correct information for many of the oncogenes described in the page.


November 5, 2015

Updated the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page to include information on the inhibitory neurotransmitter, glycine.


October 22, 2015

Updated the Vitamins page and the Iron and Copper Homeostasis page to include information on roles of ascorbic acid in the control of overall iron homeostasis.


August 29, 2015

Updated the Cholesterol Metabolism page and the Lipoproteins page to include information on the newest class of anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs, the injectible monoclonal antibody drugs that block the function of the LDL receptor hydrolyzing protease, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, PCSK9.


August 25, 2015

Redesigned the Figure of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in the Glycoproteins page.


August 18, 2015

Redesigned the Figure of the chronic effects of hepatic ethanol metabolism in the liver in the Ethanol Metabolism page.


June 23, 2015

Performed a major overhaul of the Extracellular Matrix page by adding additional information to existing sections as well as adding new sections and adding several Figures.


June 10, 2015

Updated the Signal Transduction page by adding sections discussing the adenylate cyclases, the guanylate cyclases, and the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs).


May 21, 2015

Updated the Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans page to expand on the discussion of the various types of glycosaminoglycans and the various types of proteoglycans.


May 20, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans page showing the structure of the primary tetrasaccharide linke that attaches glycosaminoglycans to the protein core of proteoglycans.


May 10, 2015

Updated the Cholesterol Metabolism page to expand on the discussion of the enzymes involved in the pathway to cholesterol synthesis.


May 5, 2015

Created a new Figure for the Amino Acid Metabolism page showing the pathways for the catabolism/metabolism of tryptophan.


May 4, 2015

Created a new Figure for the Amino Acid Metabolism page showing the pathways for the catabolism/metabolism of cysteine.


April 30, 2015

Created two new Figures for the Amino Acid Metabolism page. One Figure shows the pathway for the catabolism of histidine, the other shows the pathways for catabolism of arginine, ornithine, and proline.


April 28, 2015

Created a new Figure for the Amino Acid Metabolism page showing the pathway for the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids.


April 28, 2015

Created a new Figure for the Amino Acid Metabolism page showing the pathway for the synthesis of carnitine from lysine (trimethyllysine).


April 22, 2015

Re-designed the Figure showing the glucose-fatty acid cycle which appears in the Glycolysis and the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation pages.


April 17, 2015

Re-designed the Figure showing the pathways by which intestinal enterocytes contribute to gluconeogenesis in the Gluconeogenesis page.


April 10, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Lipoproteins page showing how the abnormal lipoprotein, Lp(a), interferes with the dissolution of fibrin clots, thereby, promoting atherogenesis.


April 9, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Blood Coagulation page showing the mechanism of tPA-mediated activation of plasmin and the resultant dissolution of fibrin clots.


April 9, 2015

Added a new section to the Gut-Brain Interrelationships page discussing the functions of FGF19 in metabolic homeostasis and feeding behaviors.


April 8, 2015

Added a new Figure showing to the Blood Coagulation page depicting the G-protein coupled receptors involved in regulation of platelet activation.


April 4, 2015

Re-designed the Figure showing the pathway of heme biosynthesis in the Heme and Porphyrin Metabolism page.


March 31, 2015

Updated the discussion of selenium and selenoproteins in the Minerals: Critical Micronutrients page.


March 29, 2015

Updated the discussion of creatine synthesis in the Amino Acid Derivatives page and also added a new Figure showing the pathway of creatine synthesis.


March 29, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Amino Acid Derivatives page showing the the synthesis of glutathione and the structure of oxidized glutathione (GSSG).


March 28, 2015

Updated the DNA Metabolism page to include details of the DNA primase complex and expanded the discussion of genomic imprinting.


March 27, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Glycogen Metabolism page showing the structure of a typical glycogen polymer


March 25, 2015

Re-designed the Figure of the synthesis of creatine in the Amino Acid Derivatives page and also updated the information on the creatine biosynthesis pathway.


March 24, 2015

Re-designed the Figures that depict the Cori cycle and the Glucose-Alanine cycles that appear in the Gluconeogenesis page, the Amino Acid Metabolism page and the Nitrogen Metabolism page.


March 24, 2015

Pdated the Amino Acid Metabolism page to include more details on various enzymes and also added some information on several diseases.


March 20, 2015

Overhauled the Insulin Functions page to streamline the information flow.


March 18, 2015

Updated the Glycogen Metabolism page again to expand the discussion of glycogen storage diseases and details on the phosphoglucomutase genes.


March 13, 2015

Created a new stand-alone page discussing Iron and Copper Homeostasis by removing the discussion of Iron Metabolism from the former Iron, Heme, and Porphyrin Metabolism page. The latter page now covers just Heme synthesis and degradation pathways.


March 5, 2015

Created a new stand-alone page discussing Galactose Metabolism and the galactosemias. This information used to be in the Entry of Non-Glucose Carbons into Glycolysis page which has been elimiated.


March 4, 2015

Added an updated Figure to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page showing the reactions of peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation.


March 4, 2015

Added an updated Figure to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page showing the reactions of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation.


March 2, 2015

Updated, reorganized, and expanded the Glycogen Metabolism page.


March 2, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Glycogen Metabolism page depicting the reactions of glycogen synthesis from glucose and including the role of the "primer" protein glycogenin.


February 28, 2015

Added a section to the Enzyme Kinetics page describing the most effective way to approach and solve enzyme inhibition questions on exams.


February 28, 2015

Updated the Figure showing SREBP regulation in the Cholesterol Metabolism page.


February 27, 2015

Updated, reorganized, and made corrections within the PDH Complex and TCA Cycle page.


February 18, 2015

Updated the 2,3-BPG synthesis Figure in the Glycolysis page.


February 18, 2015

Updated, reorganized, and made corrections within the Glycolysis page.


February 11, 2015

Added a new Figure to the Muscle Biochemistry page showing the role of adrenergic receptor activation in the regulaiton of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation.


February 5, 2015

Added new content and a new Figure showing the organization of the dystroglycan complex to the Muscle Biochemistry page.


February 5, 2015

Updated, reorganized, and expanded the Muscle Biochemistry page.


February 2, 2015

Removed the discussion of minerals from the Vitamins page and created a separate Minerals: Critical Micronutrients page for this topic. The page will be undergoing modifications for the next week or so, thus, be sure to check the page often.


January 28, 2015

Several updates and expansions made to the Vitamins and Minerals page.


January 21, 2015

Added an expanded section to the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page discussing the pharmacology of adrenergic receptor (epinephrine and norepinephrine) drugs.


December 23, 2014

Added an expanded section to the Protein Synthesis page detailing the activities of numerous classes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitors.


December 5, 2014

Updated the Bioactive Lipids page to include a section discussing the functions of several members of the fatty acid amide class of bioactive lipids.


October 30, 2014

Added a new page to the site describing and discussing Graves disease (thyrotoxicosis).


October 28, 2014

Added a new page to the site describing and discussing Addison disease.


October 28, 2014

Added a new page to the site describing and discussing Cushing syndrome.


October 26, 2014

Added a new page to the site that will keep a running update of errors found in the first printing of my textbook: Integrative Medical Biochemistry: Examination and Board Review.


October 23, 2014

Updated the Steroid Hormones page to include discussion of the thyroid hormones.


October 7, 2014

Update the image of cysteine synthesis from methionine in the Amino Acid Metabolism page.


September 22, 2014

Added a new page that will list peer-reviewed publications used in the dissemination of the information in The Medical Biochemistry Page. The References page is found in the Resources section accessed from the main page of the website.


June 24, 2014

Added a new images to the Biochemistry of Muscle page showing the organization of a typical skeletal muscle fiber.


May 1, 2014

Added updated images to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page showing the synthesis and utilization of the ketone bodies.


March 8, 2014

Added an updated phenylalanine hydroxylation reaction (tyrosine synthesis) Figure to the Amino Acid Metabolism page.


January 13, 2014

Added a new Figure to the PDH and TCA Cycle page showing the reactions of the TCA cycle.


December 27, 2013

Added two new sections to the Signal Transduction page that discuss the nuclear receptor coactivators and the nuclear receptor corepressors. Also added two new Figures, one for each of the new sections, one depicting typical coactivator and one depicting typical corepressor complexes at a target gene.


December 22, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Vitamins and Minerals page depicitng the processes by which retinal (vitamin A) is involved in vision via rod cell signaling.


December 22, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Protein Modifications page, and the Vitamins and Minerals page depicitng the reactions required for the incorporation of gamma-carboxy glutamate residues into proteins, using prothrombin as an example.


December 20, 2013

Added a 2 new Figures to the Eicosanoids page, one showing the biochemically correct mechanism of synthesis and the cyclic eicosanoids (prostaglandins and thromboxanes), and the other showing the biochemically correct mechanism of synthesis of the linear eicosanoids (leukotrienes).


December 19, 2013

Added a 2 new Figures to the Lipid Mediators of Inflammation page, one showing the mechanism of synthesis and the lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4) and the other showing the mechanism of synthesis of the aspirin-triggered lipoxins (epi-LXA4 and epi-LXB4).


December 18, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page showing the mechanism by which β-adrenergic receptor (epinephrine od norepinephrine) or glucagon receptor activation leads to triglyceride hydrolysis and fatty acid release from adipocytes. In addition, the figure shows the major mechanism by which insulin counters these actions.


December 15, 2013

Added a newly redesigned Figure to the Adipose Tissue page showing the major signaling pthways initiated by leptin binding to its receptor.


December 13, 2013

Added a newly redesigned Figure to the Blood Coagulation page showing the depicting the intrinsic and extrinsic clotting cascades.


December 13, 2013

Added a newly redesigned Figure showing the mechanisms of fatty acid-induced insulin resistance to the to the Insulin Functions page.


November 16, 2013

Added a new sections to the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page providing a brief overview of the human nervous system and also discussing some of the pharmacology of the sympathetic (adrenergic) and parasympathetic (cholinergic) nervous systems.


October 29, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Blood Coagulation page showing the mechanism of activation of protein C by thrombin.


October 22, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Blood Coagulation page showing the mechanism of activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) by thrombin.


September 19, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page showing the mechanism of activation of hormone-sensitive lipase, HSL.


September 18, 2013

Added more detailed information on the PKC and MAP kinase families of signal transducing kinases to the Signal Transduction page.


September 14, 2013

Added new information to the Phospholipids and Phospholipases section of the Signal Transduction, page discussing the PLC, PLA, and PLD families of phospholipid hydrolyzing enzymes.


September 14, 2013

Added new Figure to the Signal Transduction, page showing how GPCR and tyrosine (Y) kinase receptors activate signal transduction pathways via PLCβ and PLCγ.


September 11, 2013

Added a new section to the Gut-Brain Interrelationships, page discussing the procolipase-derived pentapeptide, enterostatin, and its role in regulating fat intake.


September 10, 2013

Added a re-designed Figure showing the activation of PKA via the glucagon receptor. This new Figure appears in the Enzyme Kinetics, Glycolysis, Glycogen Metabolism, and Peptide Hormones pages.


September 9, 2013

Added a re-designed Figure to the Glycogen Metabolism page diagramming the effects α-adrenergic receptor activation on the activity of glycogen phosphorylase.


September 9, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Ethanol Metabolism page diagramming the effects of alcohol metabolism on hepatic cell functions.


September 5, 2013

Increased the discussion of the GABA receptor family in the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page and included a new Table listing all these receptors.


September 4, 2013

Increased the discussion of the glutamate receptor family in the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page and included a new Table listing all these receptors.


September 3, 2013

Added a new section and a new Figure to the RNA Metabolism page describing the prcesses of RNA editing and showing the editing of the apoB mRNA.


September 1, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Insulin Actions page showing the structure of the insulin receptor with bound insulin.


August 31, 2013

Added a new Figure to the Metabolic Syndrome page which is a flow chart showing the factors contributing to the progression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and ultimately to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).


August 27, 2013

Added two new sections to the Protein Synthesis page describing the role of the poly(A) tail in translational initiation and the process of cap-independent translational initiaiton involving internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) in the mRNA.


August 25, 2013

Expanded the Table describing various neurotransmitters and added a section discussing the role of dopamine in the reward processes of food intake to the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page.


August 23, 2013

Added a new image to the Cell Cycle and the Tumor Suppressors pages showing the role of the p53 tumor suppressor in the regulation of cell cycle progression through transcriptional activation of the CDK inhibitory protein, p21CIP.


August 20, 2013

Added a new section to the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page describing the family of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), their expression and major functions.


August 17, 2013

Added a new Table to the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page describing the various adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors, their expression and major functions


August 15, 2013

Added a new image to the Insulin Functions page showing the mechanism of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, GSIS.


August 12, 2013

Added a new section to the RNA Metabolism page describing the catalytic class of RNA called ribozymes.


August 12, 2013

Added a new sections to the Amino Acid Metabolism page describing the intestinal uptake of dietary amino acids and peptides and also the characteristics of Hartnup disorder which is due to defective intestinal and renal nuetral amino acid transport.


August 12, 2013

Added a new image and increased information to the Insulin Functions page describing the multiple signal transduction pathways induced in response to insulin binding its receptor.


August 4, 2013

Added a redesigned image to the Glycogen Metabolism page showing the regulation of glycogen synthase via activation of α-adrenergic receptors.


August 3, 2013

Added a redesigned image showing the role of insulin in the regulation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase to the Insulin Functions page.


July 28, 2013

Added a redesigned image showing the role of the pRB tumor suppressor in the regulation of the transcription factor E2F to the Cell Cycle and the Tumor Suppressors pages.


July 22, 2013

Added a redesigned image showing Wnt activation of .-catenin signalin to the Signal Transduction by Wnts, TGF-β, and BMPs page.


July 21, 2013

Added a new image to the Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans page showing the structure of complex proteoglycan of the aggrecan family.


July 1, 2013

Added a new image to the Lipid Synthesis page showing the reactions catalyzed by fatty acid synthase, FAS.


June 28, 2013

Added a new image to the Bioactive Lipids page showing the structures of the major lysophospholipid (LPL) classes.


May 8, 2013

Added a new disease page describing the characteristics of the GLUT1 Deficiency Syndrome, GLUT1DS.


March 31, 2013

Added a new image to the Bile Acid Synthesis page depiciting the structure of a liver lobule.


January 18, 2013

Added a new section to the Gluconeogenesis page describing the role of intestinal gluconeogenesis in the regulation of overall glucose homeostasis as well as its' role in the regulation of feeding behaviors via neural circuits to the hypothalamus.


November 15, 2012

Added a new Figure to the Adipose Tissue page which shows the different morphology of white and brown adipocytes.


November 6, 2012

Added 3 new Figures to the Protein synthesis page detailing the processes of translation initiation, elongation, and termination.


October 16, 2012

Added a new section to the Nitrogen Metabolism page detailing the role of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the regulation of brain ammonia levels. Also added a new Figure detailing the cycle within the brain.


October 3, 2012

Added a new Table to the PPAR page detailing several lipid metabolic genes that are transcriptionally regulated by PPARα.


September 24, 2012

Added a new section to the Fatty Acid Oxidation page describing the microsomal (omega) ω-oxidation pathway that is initiated by a family of ω-hydroxylating enzymes.


September 24, 2012

Added a new section to the Amino Acid Metabolism page describing the role of leucine in the regulation of appetite and feeding behaviors via actions in the hypothalamus.


September 22, 2012

Added a new section to the Ethanol Metabolism page that describes the mechanisms by which excess hepatic acetate production during chronic ethanol (alcohol) metabolism contributes to increased acetyl-CoA production and subsequently to increased fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.


September 22, 2012

Added a new section to the Gut-Brain Interactions page detailing hypothalamic lipid metabolism and its role in the control of appetite and feeding behaviors.


September 14, 2012

Added a new Figure to the section in the Glycolysis page that describes the alternative pathway of glycolysis observed in cancer cells and other highly proliferative cell types. The Figure focuses on the chemical structures and reactions of the alternate glycolysis pathway starting with 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG).


September 13, 2012

Added a new section to the Glycolysis page describing the alternative pathway of glycolysis observed in cancer cells and other highly proliferative cell types. This work describes the foundation of the observations made by Otto Warburg in 1924, showing that cancer cells "fermented" glucose to lactate instead of completely oxidizing it in the mitochondria. This observation became known as the Warburg Effect.


September 3, 2012

Added a new section to the Glycoproteins page describing the newly discovered mechanism by which increased flux through the HBP, that is associated with hyperglycemia, results in exacerbated hyperglycemia by increased transcriptional activation of gluconeogenesis.


August 10, 2012

Updated and expanded the section on lysophospholipids (LPLs) in the Bioactive Lipids page.


August 6, 2012

Added a brief discussion of the lipid sensing receptors, GPR35 and GPR55, to the Bioactive Lipids page.


August 6, 2012

Added a new page describing the synthesis, metabolism, and biological activities of the Endocannabinoids.


July 27, 2012

Updated and expanded the section on lysine catabolism in the Amino Acid Metabolism page to more accurately reflect the pathways of catabolism and clinical significances of defects in these pathways.


July 19, 2012

Added a new Figure to the Protein Synthesis page depicting the structure of a typical tRNA molecule.


July 17, 2012

Added a new Figure and additional discussion to the section on selenoproteins in the Protein Modifications page and to the Protein Synthesis page.


July 16, 2012

Added a new section to the Peptide Hormones page describing the details of the newly discovered exercise-induced skeletal muscle hormone called irisin. Also added a brief description of irisin to the Table of Vertebrate Hormones page.


July 16, 2012

Added a new image to the Lipoproteins page showing the typical structure of a lipoprotein particle using a chylomicron as an example.


June 28, 2012

Expanded the section on Mobilization of Fat Stores in the Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation page to include details on the activities and regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL).


June 7, 2012

Added a new section to the Glycoproteins page and the Insulin Function page detailing the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and its role in nutrient responsiveness, development, and metabolism.


May 21, 2012

Added a new page Bioactive Lipids which discusses several types of bioactive lipids and lipid-sensing receptors in the regulation of metabolic functions.


May 14, 2012

Added a section to the Amino Acid Metabolism page describing the role of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) leucine in overall metabolic homeostasis.


April 23, 2012

Given the importance of ethanol (alcohol) metabolism, with respect to the development of numerous metabolic disorders, as well as addictive behaviors, I have removed the discussion of this pathway from the Glycolysis page and created a separate page devoted to Ethanol Metabolism.


April 12, 2012

Added some new information to the Biochemistry of Nerve Transmission page discussing the involvement of glutamate and glutamate receptors in the processes of nerve signaling.


April 12, 2012

Added some new information to the Nitrogen Metabolism page discussing the involvement of glutamate, glutamine, and the branched-chain amino acids in nitrogen homeostasis in the central nervous system.


April 6, 2012

Added some new information to the Lipid Synthesis page reflecting some just published data showing that adipose tissue express a novel form of the transcription factor ChREBP, termed ChREBP-β.


April 2, 2012

Added a new Figure to the Omega Fatty Acids page detailing the role of DHA binding to GPR120 and the control of inflammatory process and insulin action at the level of glucose uptake.


April 2, 2012

Added new Figures to the Lipoproteins page. One diagrams the mechanism of chylomicron remnant uptake by the liver. The other illustrates the interaction of nascent apoA-I with cells and the extraction of cholesterol through interaction with ABCA1, then the intravascular interactions between HDL and LDL.


March 30, 2012

Added new Figures to the Signal Transduction page. One diagrams the basic structure of several members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. The other image shows the basic process by which ligand binding to GPCRs results in activation of receptor associated trimeric G-proteins.


March 28, 2012

Evidence over the past 5-10 years has made a clear distinction between the consumption of fructose and the development of diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, I have created a new page that covers Fructose Metabolism and associated metabolic dysfunction.


March 9, 2012

Added two images to the Membranes and Membrane Transport page depicting the structural and functional organization of the Na+,K+-ATPases.


March 9, 2012

Given that the vast majority of visitors to the Medical Biochemistry Page prefer pages with advertising, all pages and all content are now freely available. Given the costs associated with maintaining up-to-date content, The Medical Biochemistry Page encourages visitors to patronize the site advertisers to ensure continued free access.


February 14, 2012

Added new images to the Hemoglobin and Myoglobin page (in the Hemoglobin Genes section) depicting the structure of the globin gene clusters on chromosome 16 and 11, the developmental patterns of embryonic, fetal, and adult globin gene expression, and the subunit structure of the various major forms of embryonic, fetal, and adult hemoglobins.


February 11, 2012

Added new content and an associated image to the Glycogen Metabolism and von Gierke Disease pages that describe and depict the metabolic disruptions that result as a consequence of deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate activity.


February 10, 2012

Added a new image to the Protein Synthesis page depicting the mechanism by which iron regulates the translation of the ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNAs.


February 10, 2012

Added a new image to the Hemoglobin and Myoglobin page depicting the oxygen saturation curves for these proteins.


February 8, 2012

Added a new image to the Signal Transduction page that diagrams the general structure of a typical 7-transmembrane spanning GPCR.


February 8, 2012

Added new images to the Biological Membranes page that includes basic lipid bilayer composition of plasma membrane; basic structure of aquaporins; diagrammatic representation of the different classes of membrane transporters.


February 8, 2012

Added new images to the DNA Metabolism page that includes nucleosome structure; hierarchy of chromatin structure; replication fork; detail of replication fork, function of telomerase in telomere replication; mechanism of post-replicative DNA methylation.

Also expanded the discussion of eukaryotic DNA polymerases to include a Table of the four (A, B, X, Y) different families of polymerases.


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Last modified: May 24, 2017